NOMINALS like modifiers, provide options for expanding and clarifying basic sentences. Nominals are noun substitutes (usually infinitive phrases, gerunds, gerund phrases, or dependent clauses), which occupy the same positions as nouns and which function in the same ways as subjects, objects, and complements.
- That you did not give me the respect that I deserve does not surprise me. (a dependent clause is used as a subject)
- Playing all the games all night will surely make you insane. ( a gerund phrase is used as a subject)
- To act innocent is very common everytime a crime is committed. ( an infinitive phrase is used as a subject)
APPOSITIVES, though similar to Nominals, do not replace nouns but rather rename or clarify the meaning of the nouns as well as other sentence elements.
- Two professors, Dr. Johnson and Dr. Watsons, survey world literature in alternate semesters.
- Justin, a US marine, received an award for his heroism.
Revise each of the following sentences by using at least one nominal or appositive.
- Justin caught a marlin which is a huge salt-water fish.
- The students complained about the project, but this does not influence their final grade.
- Something caused her to turn pale and terrible when she saw the man.
~end of lesson~