Wednesday, January 14, 2009

Lesson 3: Recognizing Pronouns

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1. A PRONOUN is a word that replaces a noun. Pronouns identify persons, places, things, and ideas without restating or naming them.

  • Diana is a very good actress. SHE underwent a rigid training in theater.
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2. An ANTECEDENT is the word for which a pronoun stands.

  • JUSTIN brought his book to school. (Justin is the antecedent of HIS.)
  • The GIRL who came here has gone. (The antecedent of WHO is GIRL.)
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3. There are various kinds of pronouns:

a.) PERSONAL PRONOUNS

>refer to the speaker ( I, me, we, us, my, mine, our, ours)

>the person spoken to (you, your, yours)

>the person spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, hers, its, their, theirs).


b.) INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

> are used to ask questions (who, whom, whose, which, what)


c.) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS point out the person or thing referred to ( this, that, those, these). When one of these words modifies a substantive, it ceases to be a pronoun and becomes an adjective.

  • THIS is my responsibility. (pronoun)
  • THIS is a beautiful place.(pronoun)
  • THIS responsibility is expected from you. (adjective)
  • THIS place is so conducive for relaxation. (adjective)
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d.) INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (each, either, neither, one, none, some, other, another, few, all, many, several, and both) point out persons, places, or things less clearly than demonstratives do.

  • EACH should do his work.
  • MANY were absent yesterday.


When one of these pronouns modifies a substantive, it ceases to be a pronoun and becomes an adjective.

  • MANY attended the party. (pronoun)
  • MANY students attended the lecture today. (adjective)
  • SOME do not like this story. (pronoun)
  • SOME students do not like this story. (adjective)

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e.) COMPOUND PRONOUNS are formed by adding -SELF or -SELVES to some of the simple personal pronouns.

  • myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves


> A compound personal pronoun is used correctly as a reflexive to refer back to the subject of the sentence.

  • He helped HIMSELF.

> It is also used as an INTENSIVE for emphasis.

  • He HIMSELF is wrong.

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f.) A RELATIVE PRONOUN is not only a pronoun but also a connecting word. Because the relative pronoun connects a subordinate clause with the main clause. It is also called a CONJUNCTIVE Pronoun. (who, whom, whose, which, that)

  • The boy WHO sang is here.
  • We invite WHOEVER will come. (compound relative pronoun)


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Exercise:


Find the pronouns in each sentence below.


1.) Justin decided that he will stay with us.

2.) You really should help her in any way.

3.) I am bigger than she by a few centimeters.

4.) He couldn't accept the idea that she wanted to live alone in an apartment.

5.) They took the tools that I bought from the hardware store.

6.) We took it to be the correct response.

7.) Justin and Jesse do not wish to go with them nor us.

8.) Mrs. Smith convinced me that it was not right.

9.) My teacher can bring the books when he visits me.

10.) We believe it is going to work.



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~end of lesson~

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